Extending Lewin’s Behavior Model

In a recent Linked in discussion I brought up a simple formula that represents behaviour, this model was introduced in 1936 by Kurt Lewin, and it states that B = F(P, E) (http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~kihlstrm/PxSInteraction.htm for more info). How this reads is that behaviour is a function of Person and the Environment. During that discussion, it was suggested that Lewin’s Model was to simplistic, and it was suggested that the formula B= f(P, E + Ui) where Ui represents the uniqueness of the individual. While I agree with that I thought the formula should be B = F(P + Ui, E). My take is that the behavior is a function of Person plus their unique intrinsic motivations as an individual and the environment in which they react with.

Even going a step further, Ui could represent each person’s unique intrinsic motivation. If we expand the model again we could suggest that B=f{(P + Ui), (E + Ex)} where Ex is Extrinsic Motivational Factors. Keeping in mind that Ex can have a negative effect as well as a positive affect depending on the environment and the behavior you are trying to change or modify. But defining intrinsic motivation in an individual is difficult however, if we look at the work of Steven Reiss (http://sitemaker.umich.edu/cognition.and.environment/files/reiss-intrinsic-mot.pdf ) whose work on defining 16 different intrinsic motivators we may be able to ensure that Gamification Environments and Extrinsic Motivations ensure that it addresses a person’s Unique Intrinsic motivators.

Motive Intrinsic Feeling (Positive) Intrinsic Value

Motive

Intrinsic Feeling (Positive)

Intrinsic Value

Acceptance: Desire for approval

Self – Confidence

Self

Curiosity: Desire for Knowledge

Wonderment

Idea

Eating: Desire for Food

Satiation

Sustenance

Family: Desire to raise Children

Love

Children

Honor: Desire to obey a traditional Moral Code, Loyal to the
traditional Values of ones Clan/Ethnic group

Loyalty

Duty

Idealism: Desire to improve society (including Altruism, Justice)

Compassion

Fairness

Independence: Desire for Individuality, autonomy

Freedom

Self-reliance

Order-Desire to organize (including desire for ritual)

Comfort

Stability

Physical Exercise: Desire to exercise Muscle

Vitality

Fitness

Romance: Desire for Courting

Ecstasy

Sensuality

Power: Desire to influence (including Leadership, related to Mastery)

Self-efficacy

Achievement, Leadership

Saving: Desire to collect

Ownership

Frugality

Social Contact: Desire for peer campership, friends (Desire to play)

Fun

Belonging

Status: Desire for social Standing/Importance (Desire for Attention)

Self-importance

Reputation

Tranquility: Desire for inner peace, Safety (avoid Anxiety, fear)

Relaxation

Caution

Vengeance: Desire to get even (Including the desire to win)

Vindication

Winning

Table Reproduced from Sharlene Sy ‘Gamification, Reality TV, and Reiss’s 16 Intrinsic Motivators’ (http://stratsynergy.wordpress.com/2010/10/24/gamification-reality-tv-and-reisss-16-intrinsic-motivators/)

According to Sy(2012), these 16 intrinsic motivators are responsible in motivating a person’s behavior , and that it is the unique combination of these motivators that “determine our individuality and uniqueness.” By understanding these 16 motivators we can better understand how we must create a systems that will better engage users, as there is no one size fits all solution. Only by ensuring that the environment for Gamification includes activities that feed a person’s intrinsic motivations can we truly be successful in delivering long term sustainable Gamification solutions. We could further refine our extended Lewin model to perhaps B = f{P,+ Ui, f(GE, A + Ex)}.
This suggests that Behavior is a function of a of Person and his unique intrinsic motivators, and a function of the Gamification environment that has both activities and extrinsic Rewards.

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